Experience: 1st year, 1st quarter
Practice: Collaborating around computing, Creating computational artifacts, Testing and refining computational artifacts, and Communicating about computing
Concept: Algorithms and Control
Overview and Purpose
Coders collaboratively research and create a virtual museum that responds when a user clicks on a sprite. The purpose of this project is to review understandings from the previous projects and prepare coders for the following project in the suggested sequence (Interactive Art).
Objectives and Standards
- I will learn how to collaborate with others to create a coding project.
- How can we collaborate with others to create a coding project?
- I will collaborate with others to create an interactive, virtual museum.
- How can we collaborate with others to create an interactive, virtual museum?
1B-AP-10 Create programs that include sequences, events, loops, and conditionals
- Control structures specify the order (sequence) in which instructions are executed within a program and can be combined to support the creation of more complex programs. Events allow portions of a program to run based on a specific action. For example, students could write a program to explain the water cycle and when a specific component is clicked (event), the program would show information about that part of the water cycle. Conditionals allow for the execution of a portion of code in a program when a certain condition is true. For example, students could write a math game that asks multiplication fact questions and then uses a conditional to check whether or not the answer that was entered is correct. Loops allow for the repetition of a sequence of code multiple times. For example, in a program that produces an animation about a famous historical character, students could use a loop to have the character walk across the screen as they introduce themselves. (source)
1B-AP-16 Take on varying roles, with teacher guidance, when collaborating with peers during the design, implementation, and review stages of program development.
- Collaborative computing is the process of performing a computational task by working in pairs or on teams. Because it involves asking for the contributions and feedback of others, effective collaboration can lead to better outcomes than working independently. Students should take turns in different roles during program development, such as note taker, facilitator, program tester, or “driver” of the computer. (source)
1B-AP-14 Observe intellectual property rights and give appropriate attribution when creating or remixing programs.
- Intellectual property rights can vary by country but copyright laws give the creator of a work a set of rights that prevents others from copying the work and using it in ways that they may not like. Students should identify instances of remixing, when ideas are borrowed and iterated upon, and credit the original creator. Students should also consider common licenses that place limitations or restrictions on the use of computational artifacts, such as images and music downloaded from the Internet. At this stage, attribution should be written in the format required by the teacher and should always be included on any programs shared online. (source)
1B-AP-15 Test and debug (identify and fix errors) a program or algorithm to ensure it runs as intended.
- As students develop programs they should continuously test those programs to see that they do what was expected and fix (debug), any errors. Students should also be able to successfully debug simple errors in programs created by others. (source
1B-AP-17 Describe choices made during program development using code comments, presentations, and demonstrations.
- People communicate about their code to help others understand and use their programs. Another purpose of communicating one's design choices is to show an understanding of one's work. These explanations could manifest themselves as in-line code comments for collaborators and assessors, or as part of a summative presentation, such as a code walk-through or coding journal. (source)
Practices and Concepts
Practice 2: Collaborating around computing
- "Collaborative computing is the process of performing a computational task by working in pairs and on teams. Because it involves asking for the contributions and feedback of others, effective collaboration can lead to better outcomes than working independently. Collaboration requires individuals to navigate and incorporate diverse perspectives, conflicting ideas, disparate skills, and distinct personalities. Students should use collaborative tools to effectively work together and to create complex artifacts." (p.75)
- P2.1. Cultivate working relationships with individuals possessing diverse perspectives, skills, and personalities. (p.75)
- P2.2. Create team norms, expectations, and equitable workloads to increase efficiency and effectiveness (p.76)
Practice 5: Creating computational artifacts
- "The process of developing computational artifacts embraces both creative expression and the exploration of ideas to create prototypes and solve computational problems. Students create artifacts that are personally relevant or beneficial to their community and beyond. Computational artifacts can be created by combining and modifying existing artifacts or by developing new artifacts. Examples of computational artifacts include programs, simulations, visualizations, digital animations, robotic systems, and apps." (p.80)
- P5.2. Create a computational artifact for practical intent, personal expression, or to address a societal issue. (p.80)
- P5.3. Modify an existing artifact to improve or customize it. (p.80)
Practice 6: Testing and refining computational artifacts
- "Testing and refinement is the deliberate and iterative process of improving a computational artifact. This process includes debugging (identifying and fixing errors) and comparing actual outcomes to intended outcomes. Students also respond to the changing needs and expectations of end users and improve the performance, reliability, usability, and accessibility of artifacts." (p.81)
- P6.1. Systematically test computational artifacts by considering all scenarios and using test cases." (p.81)
- P6.2. Identify and fix errors using a systematic process. (p.81)
Practice 7: Communicating about computing
- "Communication involves personal expression and exchanging ideas with others. In computer science, students communicate with diverse audiences about the use and effects of computation and the appropriateness of computational choices. Students write clear comments, document their work, and communicate their ideas through multiple forms of media. Clear communication includes using precise language and carefully considering possible audiences." (p.82)
- P7.2. Describe, justify, and document computational processes and solutions using appropriate terminology consistent with the intended audience and purpose. (p.82)
- P7.3. Articulate ideas responsibly by observing intellectual property rights and giving appropriate attribution. (p.83)
- "Algorithms are designed to be carried out by both humans and computers. In early grades, students learn about age-appropriate algorithms from the real world. As they progress, students learn about the development, combination, and decomposition of algorithms, as well as the evaluation of competing algorithms." (p.91)
- Grade 5 - "Different algorithms can achieve the same result. Some algorithms are more appropriate for a specific context than others." (p.103)
- "Control structures specify the order in which instructions are executed within an algorithm or program. In early grades, students learn about sequential execution and simple control structures. As they progress, students expand their understanding to combinations of structures that support complex execution." (p.91)
- Grade 5 - "Control structures, including loops, event handlers, and conditionals, are used to specify the flow of execution. Conditionals selectively execute or skip instructions under different conditions." (p.103)
- A step-by-step process to complete a task. (source)
- A formula or set of steps for solving a particular problem. To be an algorithm, a set of rules must be unambiguous and have a clear stopping point. (source)
- One out of possibly many frames, or backgrounds, of the Stage. (source)
- The process of finding and correcting errors (bugs) in programs. (source)
- To find and remove errors (bugs) from a software program. Bugs occur in programs when a line of code or an instruction conflicts with other elements of the code. (source)
- An action or occurrence detected by a program. Events can be user actions, such as clicking a mouse button or pressing a key, or system occurrences, such as running out of memory. Most modern applications, particularly those that run in Macintosh and Windows environments, are said to be event-driven,because they are designed to respond to events. (source)
- The computational concept of one thing causing another thing to happen. (source)
- Any identifiable occurrence that has significance for system hardware or software. User-generated events include keystrokes and mouse clicks; system-generated events include program loading and errors. (source)
- One or more Scratch blocks connected together to form a sequence. Scripts begin with an event block that responds to input (e.g., mouse click, broadcast). When triggered, additional blocks connected to the event block are executed one at a time. (source)
- A media object that performs actions on the stage in a Scratch project. (source)
More vocabulary words from CSTA
- Potential subjects: Any
- Example(s): This project can be modified to include themes from any subject area, topic, or theme. Click here to see other examples and share your own ideas on our subforum dedicated to integrating projects or click here for a studio with similar projects.
- This project relates to any vocation where people share information with the public about a topic. For example, historians, biologists, social scientists, researchers, etc. Click here to visit a website dedicated to exploring potential careers through coding.